A volume in Research in Mathematics Education Series Editor Barbara J. Dougherty, University of Mississippi This monograph reports on an analysis of a small part of the mathematics curriculum, the definitions given to quadrilaterals. This kind of research, which we call micro-curricular analysis, is often undertaken by those who create curriculum, but it is not usually done systematically and it is rarely published. Many terms in mathematics education can be found to have different definitions in mathematics books. Among these are "natural number," "parallel lines" and "congruent triangles," "trapezoid" and "isosceles trapezoid," the formal definitions of the trigonometric functions and absolute value, and implicit definitions of the arithmetic operations addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Yet many teachers and students do not realize there is a choice of definitions for mathematical terms. And even those who realize there is a choice may not know who decides which definition of any mathematical term is better, and under what criteria. Finally, rarely are the mathematical implications of various choices discussed. As a result, many students misuse and otherwise do not understand the role of definition in mathematics. We have chosen in this monograph to examine a bit of mathematics for its definitions: the quadrilaterals. We do so because there is some disagreement in the definitions and, consequently, in the ways in which quadrilaterals are classified and relate to each other. The issues underlying these differences have engaged students, teachers, mathematics educators, and mathematicians. There have been several articles and a number of essays on the definitions and classification of quadrilaterals. But primarily we chose this specific area of definition in mathematics because it demonstrates how broad mathematical issues revolving around definitions become reflected in curricular materials. While we were undertaking this research, we found that the area of quadrilaterals supplied grist for broader and richer discussions than we had first anticipated. The intended audience includes curriculum developers, researchers, teachers, teacher trainers, and anyone interested in language and its use.
This volume contains the formal record of the lectures presented at the 9th Course of the International School of Radiation Damage and Protection held at the "E . Majorana" International Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice (Italy) from May 9 to May 20, 1989. This course was the last of a series of 4 courses, started in 1981, that were dedicated to the assessment of risk hazard from non-ionizing radiation. The proceedings of these courses were all published by Plenum Press with the following headings: 1) M. Grandolfo, S. M. Michaelson and A. Rindi, Eds. : "Biological Effects and Dosimetry of Nonionizing Radiation; Radiofrequency and Microwave Energy", Plenum Press, New York, NATO ASI Series A Life Sciences, Vo1. 49 (1983); 2) M. Grandolfo, S. M. Michaelson and A. Rindi, Eds. : "Biological Effects and Dosimetry of Static and ELF Electromagnetic Fields", Plenum Press, New York, E. Majorana International Science Series, Life Sciences, Vol. 19 (1985) ; 3) M. H. Repacholi, M. Grandolfo and A. Rindi, Eds. : "Ultrasound; medical applications, biological effects and hazard potential", Plenum Press, New York (1987). We hope that all these volumes together may represent a complete textbook and a reference for the students and scientists interested in the physics, biology, measurement and dosimetry, health effects and standard setting, in short, the risk assessment of that wide field of radiation presently classified as non-ionizing radiation. We are indebted to the Associa?ione Italiana Protezione dalle Radiazioni (AIRP), The Internat:l.
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Adolescence is typically fraught with problems, even under optimal conditions. And when chronic illness is added to the picture, medical and related social issues can complicate, and even disrupt, the course of development. The first text geared toward the integrated care setting, Behavioral Approaches to Chronic Disease in Adolescence offers clinicians an evidence-based guide to helping their young clients manage their chronic conditions and treating the psychosocial effects--from school problems and stigma to noncompliance and depression--that frequently follow diagnosis. Expert contributors present up-to-date information on epidemiology, symptoms, comorbid psychosocial problems, and treatment options for a variety of common illnesses, arranged to foster effective interventions for adolescents and efficient collaboration with other care providers in the team. Coverage is comprehensive, authoritative, and accessible, ensuring best practice while respecting each client's individuality: Empirically-based treatment guidelines for illnesses commonly found in youth, including Type 1 and 2 diabetes, asthma, cancer, obesity, and chronic pain. Overview of the physiology of adolescence, particularly as it may be affected by medical conditions, and of adolescent brain development. Latest findings on the role of families in teens' adjustment to illness and treatment. Cultural considerations affecting ethnically diverse clients and their families. Detailed discussions of ethical issues relevant to treating chronically ill young people, and of controversies involving pharmacotherapy with this population. Chapters contain useful handouts for clinicians and clients. Taking Care of the Practitioner" chapter with helpful strategies for avoiding burnout. Its emphasis on specific practical information makes Behavioral Approaches to Chronic Disease in Adolescence a "go-to" reference for health psychologists, child and adolescent mental health practitioners, pediatricians and family practitioners, and clinical social workers.
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